Sindh is the south eastern province of Pakistan. The province is associated with the river Indus and the Indus civilization as the river Indus ends here and the largest city of Indus civilization is also here.
Sindh is a repository of varied cultural values and has remained the seat of civilization and meeting point of diverse cultures from times immemorial. After Independence on August 14, 1947 with the influx of Muslims from India, its culture has progressively assumed a new complexion. Sindh’s cultural life has been shaped, to a large extent, by its comparative isolation in the past from the rest of the subcontinent. A long stretch of desert to its east and a mountainous terrain to the west served as barriers, while the Arabian Sea in the south and the Indus in the north prevented easy access. As a result, the people of Sindh developed their own exclusive artistic tradition. Their arts and craft, music and literature, games and sports have retained their original flavor. Sindh is rich in exquisite pottery, variegated glazed tiles, lacquer-work, leather and straw products, needlework, quilts, embroidery, hand print making and textile design. According to renowned European historian H.T. Sorelay, Sindhis had not only contributed to literature but also to astronomy, medicine, philosophy, dialectics and similar subjects.
Origin of the name Sindh
The province of Sindh and the people inhabiting the region had been designated after the river known in Ancient times as the Sindhus River, now also known by Indus River. In Sanskrit, sidhu means “river, stream”. However, the importance of the river and close phonetically resemblance in nomenclature would make one consider sidhu as the probable origin of the name of Sindh. Later phonetical changes transformed Sindhu into Hindu in Old Persian. The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indu, hence the modern Indus, when the British conquered South Asia, they expanded the term and applied the name to the entire region of South Asia and called it India.
Cities in Sindh
The largest city of Sindh Province it is located in the south. With its 18 million population it is the largest city of Pakistan. Most of the International flights come to Quaide Azam International airport.
The second largest city of Sindh was the former capital of the area. It is 170 Kilopeters from Karachi and offers interesting options for culture tours
The formal capital of Sindh the cradle of literature history and prosperity for the province now a very small town having ruminants of its rich past and the famous cemetery of Makli and Shahjehan Mosque.
The central city of Sindh located on the bank of the Indus river. It was also one a historical city of the area. The city has many archeological sites, shrines and a clock tower from the English times. It is 500 kilometers from Karachi
The home to the popular political party of Pakistan the people party. More importance of the city is it proximity with MOEN JO DARO the ancient city of Indus civilization.
The south eastern city of Mirpurkhas is 70 kilometers from Hyderabad it is home the the rich agriculture farms and the famous mangos from the area.
THAR DESERT :-
The eastern desert of Sindh is rich in culture and natural beauty of its sand dunes.
The town in the western Sindh
The city of the one of the most popular Sufi of Pakistan Hazrat Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
The city of Kot DG he beautiful fort and arecheological site of Kot DG (Pre Indus civilization)
Larkana or Larkano is the fourth largest city of Sindh Province, Pakistan. Formerly the city was called Chandka which was changed in 1901. In August 2000 Larkana celebrated its hundred years of existence with the current name. Larkana name is derived from “Larik” a tribe that lived in the region and was in majority. It is located on the south bank of the Ghar canal, 40 miles south of Shikarpur town, and 36 miles north-east of Mehar and about 410 kilometers from Karachi via Indus highway and 500 Kilometers via National highway.
Culture & History of Sindh
Historically Sindh is home to the Sindhis. Different cultural and ethnic groups also reside in Sindh including Urdu-speaking Muslim Indians who migrated to Pakistan from India upon independence as well as the people migrated from other provinces after independence. The Sindh is linked with Balochistan in the west and north, Punjab to the north, Gujarat and Rajasthan of India in the southeast and east, and the Arabian Sea in the south. The main language of Sindh is Sindhi while all other languages of Pakistan are spoken here. Historically the Assyrians (as early as the seventh century BC) knew the region as Sinda. The Persians as Abisind, the Greeks as Sinthus, the Romans as Sindus, the Chinese as Sintow, in Sanskrit, the province was dubbed Sindhu meaning “Ocean” while the Arabs dubbed it Al-Sindh
After the advent of Islam, a number of Sindhi scholars not only wrote books in Arabic on various aspects of Islam, but also composed poetry of high order in that languages. It is presumed that these scholars also wrote in their own language. During the rule of Sumras and Sammas, Sindhis produces excellent poetry, and amongst the earliest and best-known poets, we find the name of Syed Ali and Qazi Qadan both of Thatta and their younger contemporary, Shah Abdul Karim of Bulrhi, the great-grand father of Shah Abul Latif Bhitai.
Long before the British rule, under the influence of Persian poetry, the Sindhi poets borrowed many ideas from Persian poets. There were, however, some poets such as Mohammad Qasim, Murtaza Thattavi, Gul Mohammad Gul, Syed Gada, Hafiz Hamid, Mir Abdul Hussain Sangi, Zaman Shash and others who, in spite of having adopted Persian forms, derived their inspiration from the classical Sindhi poets. Theirs works have, therefore been popular among the masses, as well as people of more sophisticated tastes. Others, who continued to compose in indigenous styles, using the Sindhi language in its purest from, include Misree Shah, Mahdi Shah, and Hafiz Shah. Sahibdion Shah, Wali Mohammad Leghari and Hammal Faqir.
Qazi Qadan (870-985 A.H.) of Sehwan was the Sindhi poet who introduced philosophy and mysticism into Sindhi poetry. He has in his poetry laid prate emphasis on purity of mind and the study of self. In one of his verses he says: ” Even if you master thoroughly the great Arabic works Qudoor and Qafa you will only be like an ant sitting within a well in a limited environment, knowing nothing of the world outside.
Kafi the Shah and his contemporaries, Shah Inayat, Muhammad Moeen Thattvi, Isso Mian and Misri Shah, were also pioneers in the field of the well-known Sindhi Kafi Lyric. Others who contribute to Kafi were Qasim, Hyder Shah, Fazil Shah, Pir Mohammad Ashraf, Assooram and Qaleech Beg. Misri Shah is considered to the undisputed monarch in the domain of Kafi. The term Kafi was originally taken from Shah Abdul Latif’s waie, which corresponds to ghazal. Sachal added glory to kafi in his lyrics. After Khalifo Gul Mohammad a host Sindhi poets contributed to the development of the ghazal. The following poets deserve special mention: Qasim Shamsuddin Bulbul, Mir Abdul Hussain Saangi, Bewas Lekhraj Kishanchand Aziz, Zia Fani, Farid, Fakir Abdul Rahim of Groroh and Hafiz Mohammad Hayat.
Humour Shamsuddin Bulbul was the first poet to introduce humor in Sindhi poetry. He can very well be compared to Akbar Allahabadi.
In this field Mohammad Hashim Mukhlis and more particularly Mirza Qaleech Beg, the father of modern Sindhi poetry and prose have left an indelible mark. The latter’s humor is much more polished and constructive. ” Saudai Khan” is a modest collection of his poetry dealing wit the experiences of life and the ravages of time. The book is in two volumes, and each column consists of homage paid to his ancestors and guide. He composed only 14 ghazals in Urdu.
Sindhi poetry is also prominent in Sindhi culture. Poetry of
Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai.
Sachal Sarmast is very famous amongst all of Pakistanis.
Regional poets are
Ahmed Khan MAdhoosh,
Abdul Ghaffar Tabasum,
Many Sindhi poets are doing their poetry work continuously.
It was in the British period that really good prose began to be produced. Syed Miran Mohammad Shah-I of Tikhar, Diwan Kewal Ram, Ghulam Hussain and Akhund Latifullah are among the early prose writers. But Shamsul Ulema Mirza Qaleech Beg can rightly be called the father of modern Sindhi prose. He is said to have written or translated from other languages about 400 books of poetry, novel short stories, essays etc.
“Diwan-e-Qaleech” is a collection in alphabetical order of his poetry in Sindhi. In contains about 433 verses. Another work of importance is his translation of Rubaiyat-e-Omar Khayyam in which he has followed the same meter as employed in the original Persian work. This translation has filled an important gap in Sindhi literature.
Music the patronage of music in Sindh started wit the advent of Muslims. In 72AD; when the famous Arab General Muhammad Bin Qasim was engaged in his conquest of Sindh, the Sammas of Central Sindh gave him a rousing reception. Headed by musicians, playing the Dhol-and-Shahnai, “Orchestra”, and skilled dancers giving their performances, they came to greet Muhammad Bin Qasim, who echoed the whole show. The grandeur of the musical performance and the big crowd impressed a lieutenant of Muhammad to such an extent that he suggested to the General that their army should pray to God that such a powerful tribe had been subjugated so easily. Muhammad who had a good sense of humor”. The Dhol-and-Shahnai performance whish has been the traditional ” Orchestra” of Sindh, before and since 8th century AD. Is most popular throughout the province even today.
Interest in the classical ‘Hindustani’ as well as the indigenous music in Sindh reached its height in 16th century during the reign of the Turkhan rulers, Mirza Jani Beg and his son Mirza Ghazi Beg. Both the father and the son were great patrons of poets like the famous Talib Amuli and others, and of numerous musicians who invented new musical forms, naghams, and a variety of tunes. Both the rulers were accomplished musicians themselves. Their capital Thatta was the rendezvous.