تاریخِ قرآن ڈاکٹر حمید اللہؒ کی زبانی

تاریخِ قرآن ڈاکٹر حمید اللہؒ کی زبانی

Tareekh e Quran By Dr Hamid Ullah

جامع القرآن، حضرت عثمان ؓ کی تدوین قرآن کے حوالے سے خدمات:

حضرت ابوبکر صدیق ؓ کے زمانے میں جب قرآن مجید کی تحریراً تدوین ہوئی تو مؤرخین نے لکھا ہے کہ یہ نسخہ حضرت صدیق اکبر ؓ کی خدمت میں پیش کیا گیا اور ان کی وفات تک انکے پاس رہا۔
جب ان کی وفات ہوئی تو وہ نسخہ ان کے جانشین حضرت عمر ؓ کے پاس چلا گیا۔ اور پھر مؤرخین لکھتے ہیں حضرت عمر ؓ کی شہادت واقع ہوئی تو وہ نسخہ ان کی بیٹی ام المومنین حضرت حفصہ ؓ کے پاس چلاگیا۔امہات المومنین رسول اللہ ﷺ کی ازواج مطہرات میں سب پڑھی لکھی نہیں تھی۔ بعض کو صرف پڑھنا آتا اور بعض کو پڑھنا لکھنا دونوں آتے تھے۔ جب کہ بعض امی تھیں ۔ اس میں کوئی اعتراض کا پہلو نہیں صرف یہ کہنا چاہتا تھا کہ حضرت حفصہ ؓ (حضرت عمر ؓ ) کی بیٹی ان معدودے چند عورتوں میں تھیں جن کو پڑھنا لکھنا دونوں آتے تھے۔ بہر حال حضرت ابوبکر ؓ کے لیے تیار شدہ نسخہ حضرت عمر ؓ کی وفات کے بعد حضرت حفصہ ؓ کے پاس چلا گیا۔ حضرت عمر ؓ کے جانشین حضرت عثمان ؓ نے غالباً ان کی شخصیت اور وجاہت کی بناء پر، یہ مناسب نہیں سمجھا کہ وہ نسخہ ان سےلےلیں ۔ خاص طور پر اس لیے بھی کہ حضرت عثمان ؓ خود حافظ قرآن تھے۔ ان کے پاس ان کا اپنا نسخہ موجود تھا۔ انہیں ضرورت بھی محسوس نہیں ہوئی کہ وہ اس نسخے کو حاصل کریں۔لیکن ایک واقعہ ایساپیش آیا جس کی بنا پر ضرورت پیش آئی کہ وہ نسخہ دوبارہ خلیفہ وقت کے پاس لایا جائے اور اس سے استفادہ کیا جائے۔
واقعہ یہ ہے کہ حضرت عمر ؓ کے زمانے میں غیر معمولی تیز رفتاری سے چہار دانگ عالم میں فتوحات ہوئیں تو بہت سے ایسے لوگ جو دنیا طلب تھے انہیں موقع پرستی کے تحت خیال آیا کہ وہ بھی اپنےآپ کو مسلمان ظاہر کریں ۔ لیکن حقیقت میں وہ مسلمان نہیں تھے بلکہ منافق تھے اور ان کی کوشش تھی کہ اسلام کو اندر سے ٹھیس پہنچائی جائے۔ اس سلسلے میں وہ قرآن مجید پر بھی حملےکرتےرہے۔ ممکن ہے اس کی کوئی اہمیت نہ رہی ہو لیکن ایک واقعے سے سنگین صورتحال پیدا ہو گئی۔ وہ یہ کہ حضرت عثمان ؓ کے زمانے میں آرمینیا سے جنگ کرنے کے لیے ایک فوج بھیجی گئ۔آرمینیا کا تصور غالباً آپ کے ذہنوں میں نہیں ہو گا۔ یوں سمجھ لیجئے کہ شمالی ترکی جہاں آج کل ارض روم شہر ہے اور ایرانی سرحد کا علاقہ ہے۔ اس علاقے میں ارمنی رہتے تھے۔ یہ علاقہ آرمینیاکہلاتا تھا۔ قسطلانی جو بخاری کے شارح ہیں وہ لکھتے ہیں کہ حضرت عثمان ؓ کی ایک فوج جب ارزن روم کے قریب موجود تھی (یہ ارزن روم اب ارض روم بن گیا ہے) تو اس وقت فوج میں ایک حادثہ پیش آیا۔ وہ یہ تھا کہ امام اور مقتدیوں میں بعض آیتوں کی قرات کے بارے میں جھگڑا ہو گیا۔ امام نے ایک طرح سے عبارت پڑھی اور حاضرین نے کہا یوں نہیں یوں ہے۔ ایک نےکہاہمیں فلاں استاد فلاں صحابی نے پڑھایا ہے۔ دونوں اپنی اپنی باتوں پر اڑے رہے۔ قریب تھا کہ تلواریں چلیں اور خوں ریزی ہو کہ فوج کے کمانڈر انچیف نے حسن تدبیر سے اس فتنے کی آگ کو ٹھنڈا کیا۔ جب وہ فوج مدینہ منورہ واپس آئی تو کمانڈر انچیف حذیمہ بن یمان اپنے گھر میں بچوں کی خیریت پوچھنے سے پہلے سیدھے خلیفہ کے پاس پہنچتے ہیں اور کہتے ہیں کہ یا امیر المومنین امت محمد کی خبر لیجئے۔ حضرت عثمان ؓ نے پوچھا کہ کیا واقعہ پیش آیا؟ تو انہوں نے یہ قصہ سنایا۔ اس پر حضرت عثمان ؓ نے فوراً فیصلہ کیا۔ ان میں ایک خصوصیت یہ بھی تھی کہ کوئی کام ان کے ذہن میں آتا اور فیصلہ کر لیتے تو فوراً اس کی تعمیل بھی کراتے۔ جیسے ہی یہ صورت حال سامنے لائی گئی تو انہوں نے فرمایا کہ اس کی اصلاح ہونی چاہیے۔ حضرت حفصہ ؓ کے پاس ایک آدمی بھیجا کہ حضرت ابوبکر ؓ کے لیے تیار شدہ جو نسخہ آپ کے پاس ہے وہ مجھے مستعار دیجئے۔ استفادہ کرنے کے بعد میں آپ کو واپس کر دوں گا۔ وہ نسخہ ان کے پاس آیا تو انہوں نے اسے دوبارہ پرانے کاتب وحی زیدبن ثابت ؓ ہی کے سپرد کیا کہ اس کی نقلیں تیار کرو، اور ان نقلوں کا مقابلہ کر کے اگر ان میں کتابت کی غلطیاں رہ گئی ہوں تو ان کی اصلاح کرو۔ قرآن مجید چونکہ عربی زبان کی پہلی کتاب ہے اس لیے ابتدائی زمانے میں عربی خط میں کچھ خامیاں ہوسکتی ہیں ۔ لہٰذا حضرت عثمان ؓ نے یہ بھی ہدایت کہ اگر تلفظ کی ضرورت کے لحاظ سے املا میں کچھ ترمیم کی ضرورت محسوس ہو تو ضرور کرو۔ یہ نکتہ بھی سمجھایا کہ عربی زبان مختلف علاقوں میں کچھ فرق بھی رکھتی ہے۔ قبیلہ نجد کے لوگ ایک لفظ کو ایک طریقے ادا کرتے ہیں مدینے کے لوگ دوسرے طریقے سے، فلاں جگہ کے لوگ تیسرےطریقے سے۔ اس لیے اگر کسی لفظ کے تلفظ میں اختلاف پایا جاتا ہے تو قرآن مجید کو مکہ معظمہ کے تلفظ کے مطابق لکھو۔ چنانچہ حضرت زید بن ثابت ؓ اپنے چند مددگاروں کے تعاون سےدوبارہ اس پرانے نسخے کو سامنے رکھ کر نقل کرنا شروع کرتے ہیں حضرت عثمان ؓ نے یہ بھی فرمایا کہ اگر کسی مسئلے میں اختلاف ہوتو مسئلہ میرے پاس بھیجو، میں خود اس کا فیصلہ کروں گا۔ بدقسمتی سے یہ واقعہ جو ارض روم میں پیش آیا تھا کہ فلاں آیت کے متعلق یا فلاں لفظ کے متعلق فوج میں جھگڑا ہوا، اس کی کوئی تفصیل نہیں ملتی، شاید اس جھگڑے کی بنیاد قبائلی بولیوں اور لہجوں کااختلاف
ہو۔ اس قسم کی ایک مثال مجھے یاد آتی ہے۔ قرآن مجید میں “تابوت” کا لفظ آیا ہے، جس کے معنی صندوق کے ہوتے ہیں ۔ اس کا تلفظ مدینہ منورہ کی بولی (Dialect) میں “تابوہ”ہوتاتھا۔آخرمیں “ۃ” کے ساتھ جب کہ مکے کے لوگ “تابوت” کے ساتھ پڑھتے تھے۔ اس پر کمیشن کے ارکان متفق نہیں ہوسکے۔ یہ اختلافی مسئلہ حضرت عثمان ؓ کے سامنے پیش ہوا تو حضرت عثمان ؓ نے فرمایا کہ تابوت بڑی ت کے ساتھ لکھو، یہ کوئی بڑی اہمیت کی بات نہیں ، لیکن میں آپ کو یہ بتانا چاہتا ہوں کہ جو کہا جاتا ہے کہ حضرت عثمان ؓ کے زمانے میں قرآن مجید کی تدوین ہوئی اس کی حقیقت کیاہے؟ حقیقت صرف اس قدر ہے کہ حضرت عثمان ؓ کے زمانے میں قرآن مجید کی نقلیں تیار کی گئیں ۔ املا میں کہیں کہیں ترمیم کی گئ۔ لفظ کی آواز کو نہیں بدلا گیا۔ لیکن اس آواز کی املا میں کچھ فرق کیا گیا۔ اس کے بعد اس کے چار نسخے یا ایک روایت کے مطابق سات نسخے تیار کیے گئے۔ حضرت عثمان ؓ کے زمانے میں علمی دیانت داری کا جو معیار تھا اس کے تحت انہوں نے حکم دیا کہ ان ساتوں نسخوں کو ایک ایک کر کے، مسجد نبوی میں ایک شخص با آواز بلند شروع سے لے کر آخرت تک پڑھے تاکہ کسی شخص کو بھی یہ شبہ نہ رہے کہ عثمان ؓ نے قرآن میں کہیں کوئی تبدیلی کی ہے۔ جب یہ سارے نسخے اس طرح پڑھے گئے اور سب کو اطمینان ہو گیا کہ یہ نسخے صحیح ہیں تو حضرت عثمان ؓ نے اپنی وسیع سلطنت کے مختلف صوبوں کے صدر مقاموں پر وہ نسخے بھیجے۔ حضرت عثمان ؓ کے زمانے کی اسلامی سلطنت کی وسعت کا اندازہ اس سے لگائیے کہ 27 ہجری یعنی رسول اللہ ﷺ کی وفات کے صرف پندرہ سال بعد، اسلامی فوج ایک طرف اسپین میں اور دوسری طرف دریائے جیجوں کو عبور کر کے ماوراء النہر (چین) میں داخل ہو گئی تھی۔ یورپ، ایشیا اور افریقہ، اسلامی سلطنت ان سب براعظموں میں پھیل گئی تھی اس کے بڑے بڑے صوبوں میں قرآن مجیدکےیہ نسخے بھیجے گئے اور یہ حکم دیا گیا کہ آئندہ صرف انہیں سرکاری مستند نسخوں سے مزید نقلیں لی جایا کریں ۔ اس بات کی تاکید بھی کی گئی کہ اگر کسی کے پاس کوئی نسخہ اس کے خلاف پایاجائے تو اسے تلف کر دیا جائے۔ اس حکم کی تعمیل کس حد تک ہوئ، اس کے بارے میں کچھ پتہ نہیں چلتا۔ عملاً یہ ناممکن بھی تھا کہ تین براعظموں کے ہر ہر مسلمان کے گھر میں پولیس جائےاور قرآن مجید کا شروع سے لے کر آخر تک سرکاری نسخے سے مقابلہ کرے۔ اور پھر اس میں کوئی اختلاف نظر آئے تو اسے تلف کر دے۔ تاریخی طور پر ایسے کسی واقعے کا ذکر بھی نہیں ملتالیکن بہر حال حضرت عثمان ؓ کے زمانے سے آج تک قرآن مجید کے جو نسخے ہمارے پاس نسلاً بعد نسلاً چلے آ رہے ہیں ، وہ پہلی صدی ہجری سے لے کر آج تک وہی ہیں ۔ حضرت عثمان ؓ نےجوچاریاسات قلمی نسخے مختلف مقامات پر بھیجے ان میں سے کچھ اب تک محفوظ سمجھے جاتے ہیں ۔ ثبوت کوئی نہیں ، لیکن یہ روایت ہے کہ یہ انہی نسخوں میں سے ہیں ۔ ایک نسخہ آج کل روس کےشہر تاشقندمیں ہے وہاں کیسے پہنچا اس کا قصہ یہ ہے کہ یہ نسخہ پہلے دمشق میں پایا جاتا تھا جو بنی امیہ کا صدر مقام تھا۔ جب دمشق کو تیمور لنگ نے فتح کیا تو وہاں کے مال غنیمت میں سب سےزیادہ قیمتی چیز کے طور پر حضرت عثمان ؓ کا قرآن مجید پایا۔ اسے لیا اور اپنے ساتھ پایہ تخت سمر قند لایا اور وہاں اسے محفوظ رکھا۔ یہ نسخہ سمر قند میں رہا تا آنکہ گزشتہ صدی میں روسیوں نےسمرقندکو فتح کر لیا۔ فتح کرنے کے بعد اس نسخے کو جس کی بڑی شہرت تھی روسی کمانڈر انچیف نے وہاں سے لے کر سینٹ پیٹرس برگ منتقل کر دیا جو آج کل لینن گراڈ کہلاتا ہے۔ روسی مؤرخ بیان کرتے ہیں کہ اس نسخے کو سمر قند کے حاکم نے روسی کمانڈر انچیف کے ہاتھ 25 یا 50 روپے میں فروخت کر دیا تھا، ہم نے اسے چرایا نہیں بلکہ خرید کر لائے ہیں ۔ بہر حال پہلی جنگ عظیم کےاختتام تک وہ نسخہ لینن گراڈ میں رہا اس کے بعد جیسا کہ آپ کو معلوم ہے زار کی حکومت ختم ہو گئی اور کمیونسٹوں نے حکومت پر قبضہ کر لیا۔ اس وقت بہت سے روسی باشندے جو کمیونسٹ حکومت کے ماتحت رہنا نہیں چاہتے تھے روس چھوڑ کر دنیا میں تتر بتر ہو گئے۔ ان میں سے ایک صاحب پیرس بھی آئے جو جنرل علی اکبر توپچی باشی کے نام سے مشہور تھے۔ میں خود ان سے مل چکاہوں ، انہوں نے اس کا قصہ مجھے سنایا۔ کہنے لگے کہ جب زار کو قتل کیا گیا اس وقت میں فوج میں ایک بڑے افسر کی حیثیت سے سینٹ پیٹرس برگ ہی میں موجود تھا۔ میں نے ایک کمانڈر(فوجی دستہ) بھیجا کہ جا کر شاہی محل پر قبضہ کرو اور شاہی کتب خانے میں حضرت عثمان ؓ کا جو قرآن مجید کا نسخہ ہے اسے تلاش کر کے لے آؤ۔ کمانڈر گیا اور وہ قرآن مجید لے آیا۔ انہوں نےایک فوجی جنرل کی حیثیت سے ریلوے اسٹیشن جا کر وہاں کے اسٹیشن ماسٹر سے کہا کہ مجھے ایک ریل کا انجن درکار ہے۔ اس انجن میں اس قرآن کو رکھا اور اپنے آدمیوں کی نگرانی میں انجن ڈرائیورکوحکم دیا کہ جس قدر تیزی سے جاسکتے ہو اس انجن کوترکستان لے جاؤ۔ اس کی اطلاع کمیونسٹ فوجی کمانڈروں کو چند گھنٹے بعد ملی۔ چنانچہ اس کے تعاقب میں دوسرا انجن اور کچھ افسر روانہ کیےگئے لیکن وہ انجن ان کے ہاتھ سے باہر نکل چکا تھا اور اس طرح یہ نسخہ تاشقند پہنچ گیا۔ جب کمیونسٹ دور میں تاشقند پر روسیوں نے دوبارہ قبضہ کر لیا تو اس نسخے کو وہاں سے لینن گراڈ منتقل کرنے کی کوئی کوشش نہیں کی گئ۔ چنانچہ وہ نسخہ اب تک تاشقند میں محفوظ ہے۔ زار کے زمانے میں اس قرآن مجید کا فوٹو لے کر ایک گز لمبی تقطیع پر کل پچاس نسخے چھاپے گئے تھے۔ ان میں سےچند نسخے میرے علم میں ہیں اور وہ دنیا میں محفوظ ہیں ۔ ایک امریکہ میں ہے۔ ایک انگلستان میں ہے۔ ایک نسخہ میں نے کابل میں دیکھا تھا۔ ایک مصر کے کتب خانے میں پایاجاتاہے۔میرےپاس اس کا مائیکرو فلم بھی ہے۔ یہ ایک نسخہ ہے۔ دوسرا نسخہ استنبول میں توپ قاپی سرائے میوزیم میں موجود ہے جس کو حضرت عثمان ؓ کی طرف منسوب کیا جاتا ہے۔ میں نےخوددیکھا ہے کہ اس میں سورۂ بقرہ کی آیت (فسیکفیکھم اللہ) پر سرخ دھبے پائے جاتے ہیں ۔ اور کہتے ہیں کہ یہ حضرت عثمان ؓ کا خون ہے۔ کیونکہ وہ جس وقت تلاوت کر رہے تھے اس وقت انہیں شہید کر دیا گیا تھا۔ تیسرا نسخہ انڈیا آفس لائبریری لندن میں ہے۔ اس کا فوٹو میرے پاس ہے۔ اس پر سرکاری مہریں ہیں اور لکھا ہے کہ یہ حضرت عثمان ؓ کا نسخہ قرآن ہے۔ ان نسخوں کے خط اور تقطیع میں کوئی فرق نہیں ہے۔ ایسا معلوم ہوتا ہے کہ یہ نسخے ایک دوسرے کے ہم عصر ہیں ۔ یہ نسخے جھلی پر لکھے گئے ہیں ، کاغذ پر نہیں ہیں ۔ ممکن ہے حضرت عثمان ؓ کے نسخے ہوں یااس زمانے میں یا اس کے کچھ ہی عرصہ بعد کے لکھوائے ہوئے نسخے ہوں ۔ بہر حال یہ بات ہمارے لیے قابل فخر اور باعث اطمینان ہے کہ ان نسخوں میں اور موجودہ مستعملہ نسخوں میں ، باہم کہیں بھی، کوئی فرق نہیں پایا جاتا۔
حضرت عثمان ؓ کو جامع القرآن کہا جاتا ہے اس کے معنی یہ نہیں کہ انہوں نے قرآن کو جمع کیا۔ اس کی تاویل ہمارے مورخوں نے یہ کی ہے کہ انہوں نے مسلمانوں کو ایک ہی قرآن پر جمع کیا۔جو اختلاف بولیوں میں پایا جاتا تھا اس سے ان کو بچانے کے لیے مکہ معظمہ کے تلفظ والے قرآن کو انہوں نے نافذ کیا اور کہا کہ رسول اللہ ﷺ نے اگر یہ اجازت دی تھی کہ مختلف قبائل کےلوگ مختلف الفاظ کو مختلف انداز میں پڑھ سکتے ہیں تو اب اس کی کوئی ضرورت باقی نہیں رہی کیونکہ مکہ معظمہ کی عربی اب ساری دنیائے اسلام میں نافذ اور رائج ہو چکی ہے۔ اس طرح حضرت عثمان ؓ نے مسلمانوں کو ایک قرآن مجید پر جمع کیا۔ خدا ان کی روح پر اپنی برکات نازل فرمائے۔

Originally posted 2014-08-19 18:49:24.

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