Cardiomyopathy is disease in which the heart muscle becomes weakened, stretched, or has another structural problem. It often occurs when the heart cannot pump or function well.
Progressive disease of the myocardium, or heart muscle is called Cardiomyopathy , when heart muscles becomes weakens to pump blood to rest of body. Cardiomyopathy has four types.
Enlarged heart or The muscles stretch and become thinner. This allows the chambers of your heart to expand.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is believed to be genetic. It occurs when your heart walls thicken and prevent blood from flowing through your heart. It’s a fairly common type of cardiomyopathy. It can also be caused by long-term high blood pressure or aging. Diabetes or thyroid disease can also cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
When fat and extra fibrous tissue replace the muscle of the right ventricle. This causes abnormal heart rhythms. This is a genetic cardiomyopathy.
Most of the following types of cardiomyopathy belong to one of the previous four classifications, but each has unique causes or complications.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy occurs during or after pregnancy. This rare type occurs when the heart weakens within five months of delivery or within the final month of pregnancy. When it occurs after delivery, it’s sometimes called postpartum cardiomyopathy. This is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy, and it’s a life-threatening condition. There’s no cause.
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is due to drinking too much alcohol over a long period of time, which can weaken your heart so it can no longer pump blood efficiently. Your heart then becomes enlarged. This is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy.
Ischemic cardiomyopathy occurs when your heart can no longer pump blood to the rest of your body due to coronary artery disease. Blood vessels to the heart muscle narrow and become blocked. This deprives the heart muscle of oxygen. Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a common cause of heart failure. Alternatively, nonischemic cardiomyopathy is any form that isn’t related to coronary artery disease.
Noncompaction cardiomyopathy, also called spongiform cardiomyopathy, is a rare disease present at birth. It results from abnormal development of the heart muscle in the womb. Diagnosis may occur at any stage of life.
When cardiomyopathy affects a child, it’s called pediatric cardiomyopathy.
If you have idiopathic cardiomyopathy, it means there’s no known cause.
Heart Failure Symptoms
Heart failure occurs when the heart muscle is not able to function in a manner that can sufficiently supply the body with oxygen. Congestive heart failure is the failure of the heart muscle to maintain the circulation, leading to a backup of blood in the veins that causes:
swelling (particularly in the lower parts of the body);
shortness of breath is another common symptom of congestive heart failure that occurs due to fluid buildup in the lungs; and
fatigue and a decreased capacity to exercise are other symptoms that commonly result from heart failure.
Early symptoms and signs may not be apparent, and symptoms may develop only after the condition has progressed over time.
Signs and symptoms of heart failure include
shortness of breath,
coughing (or chronic cough),
pounding or racing heart,
loss of appetite,
swelling in the ankles, and
rarely, chest pain
Symptoms are usually worse at night when lying flat.
When to see a doctor
Seek emergency medical care if you have these heart disease symptoms:
Shortness of breath
How is heart failure diagnosed?
In addition to a physical exam, your doctor may use blood tests, x-rays, an ECG test, an echocardiogram, or other tests to diagnose heart failure.
How is heart failure treated?
Treatments for heart failure include lifestyle changes, medications, surgery, and cardiac resynchronization therapy.